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Scarabaeoidea of Southern South America Links
 

 
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Scarab Guide Links
(goes to the University of Nebraska web site)
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Classification
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Scarabaeoidea
Scarabaeidae
Rutelinae
Anoplognathini
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Aulacopalpus castaneus
(Laporte, 1840)

Brachysternus castaneus Laporte 1840:127.
 

Figure 16. Parameres in caudal view of
Aulacopalpus castaneus.
 
Distribution of Aulacopalpus aconcaguensis and
Aulacopalpus castaneus.
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Description. Male (n=215): Length 14.9-19.2 mm. Width 7.8-10.2 mm. Color: dorsally brown, head and pronotum often with greenish reflections; ventrally brown. Head: Dorsal surface densely punctate, punctures moderately large. Dorsal surface with margin sparsely setose; setae long, slender, tawny to cream-colored. Frontoclypeal suture complete, weakly bisinuate. Labrum with apex vertically produced with respect to clypeus, moderately produced at middle with triangular tooth. Maxillary palpus with terminal segment longer than basal segments, with deep sulcus. Mentum with surface moderately setose, apex reflexed into oral cavity. Antenna 10-segmented, club greatly elongated (longer than combined basal segments), slightly flattened. Pronotum: Midline weakly
depressed. Surface moderately punctate with moderately large punctures, sparsely setose (setae often worn off), lateral edges moderately setose; setae long, slender, tawny to cream-colored. Scutellum: Surface glabrous and moderately punctate with moderately large punctures. Shape parabolic: 1.1 times wider than long medially. Elytron: Surface glabrous, longitudinal striae punctate, moderately impressed; punctures moderately-sized, separated by 1-4 puncture widths. Interval moderately to sparsely punctate with moderately-sized punctures. Epipleuron with row of dense setae medially ventral to bead, absent in apical and basal 1/5 of length. Pygidium: Width 2.3 times length medially. Surface sparsely to moderately punctate, punctures moderately-sized, sparsely to moderately setose, setae tawny. Venter: Thorax densely setose; setae long, tawny. Legs: Protibia with 3 subequally large teeth in apical half. Protarsal claws with modified claw
slightly thickened when compared to other claw; apex weakly bifurcate (often worn, appearing simple). Meso- and metatarsal claws simple. Tarsomere 5 without ventromedial tooth . Meso- and metatibia with apical spurs slender, acute. Mesotibial apex with 12-13 spinules. Metatibial apex with 19-20 spinules. Parameres: Figure 16. Basally without broad, medial furrow.

Female (n=9): Length 18.0-18.8 mm. Width 9.4-9.6 mm. As male except in the following respects. Head: Antennal club not elongated and flattened, equal to or less than length of basal segments. Legs: Protarsal claws simple. Meso- and metatibia with apical spurs broader, blunter.
   

 

Diagnosis. This species is distinguished from all other species in the genus Aulacopalpus by the following combination of characters: size large (usually about 18 mm in length), antennal club elongated in males (length equal to or slightly shorter than head), pronotum greenish-brown to green, elytra brown; male protarsal claws with modified claw slightly thickened when compared to other claw and with apex weakly bifurcate (often worn and appearing simple); female protarsal claws simple; meso- and metatarsal claws simple; and tarsomere 5 without ventromedial tooth; parameres without broad, medial furrow.
   

 

Distribution (see map). Coquimbo to Malleco, Chile.
Locality Data. Based on 224 specimens examined from AMNH, BCRC, CASC, CMNC, CMNH, CNCI, FMNH, KSUC, MABC, MCZC, MGFT, MNHN, MNNC, PVGH, UMRM, USNM, VMDM, ZMHB.

CHILE (217). ARAUCO (23): Contulmo. COLCHAGUA (4): La Mina, La Rufina, San Fernando. CONCEPCION (42): Chiguayante, Concepción. COQUIMBO (1): Socos. CURICO (2): Curicó, El Coigo. MALLECO (9): Angol, Renaico. ÑUBLE (3): Salto del Laja. O'HIGGINS (5): Rancagua. SANTIAGO
(58): Apoquindo, El Canelo, El Principal, Farellones, La Cisterna, Los Dominicos, Los Leones, Maipú, Quebrada de Macul, Renca, Santiago. TALCA (2): Molina. VALPARAISO (52): Algarrobo, El Quisco, El Salto, La Cruz, Limache, Olmué, Quillota, Valparaíso, Villa Alemana, Viña del Mar. NO DATA (16). NO DATA (7).
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  Temporal Data. January (1), February (1), May (14), June (3), July (37), August (52), September (17), October (3) November (25), December (7).
   
  Remarks. The variability of A. castaneus has resulted in confusion over the identity of this species. The main source of confusion was whether the protarsal claws of the males are simple or with modified claw slightly thickened when compared to the other claw and apex weakly bifurcate. Ohaus (1905,
1909) and Gutiérrez (1949) stated that the male protarsal claws of A. castaneus are simple, and Ohaus (1909) described a new species, A. fulvovirens, with male protarsal claws split and with a green head and pronotum but otherwise similar to A. castaneus. Based on 224 specimens, it is apparent that A. castaneus has a weakly split male protarsal claw that is often worn (or perhaps never develops in some individuals) and appears simple. I have also observed that the coloration of the head and pronotum of this species varies from brown or copper with greenish reflections to green. After careful examination of the types, and in light of the observed variation, I am synonymizing A. fulvovirens with A. castaneus. In fact, the "A. fulvovirens" color form is very similar to Solier's (1851) Bembegeneius fulvescens, of which Ohaus (1905) himself states "Bembegeneius fulvescens is nothing different than Tribostethes castaneus with a green head and pronotum." Solier's (1851) description and figures of Bembegeneius fulvescens are inaccurate, but I agree with Ohaus that, based on the original description and examination of the lectotype, it is a synonym of A. castaneus. I have also examined the holotype of Philippi and Philippi's (1864) Tribostethes cupreus and have determined that it fits well within my description of A. castaneus. I agree with Ohaus's (1909) synonymy of this
species with A. castaneus.
   
 

Literature cited.
Gutiérrez, R. 1949. Notas sobre Scarabaeidae Neotropicos. Anales de la Sociedad Cientí┬┤fica Argentina 148:9-35.

Ohaus, F. 1905. Revision der amerikanischen Anoplognathiden (Coleoptera lamellicornia). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 66:120-167.

Ohaus, F. 1909. Nachtrage und Berichtigungen zu meiner Revision der Brachysterniden (Coleopt. lamellicornia). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung. 71:3-26. ["1910"].

Philippi, R. A., and F. Philippi. 1864. Beschreibung einiger neuen Chilenischen Kafer. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 25:313-406.

Solier, A. J. J. 1851. Orden III. Coleopteros [pp. 5-285]. In: Historia Fisica y Politica de Chile. Zoología, vol. 5 (C. Gay, editor). C. Gay, Paris. 564 pp.

   
  Excerpt from:
Smith, A. B. T. 2002. Revision of the South American Endemic genus Aulacopalpus Guérin-Ménville with phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses of the subtribe Brachyisternina (Coleoptera: Ruteliinae: Anoplognathini: Brachysternina). Coleopterists Bulletin 56: 379-437.
 

Author: Andrew Smith ( Canadian Museum of Nature)
This website is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.0342189.
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