Mandibles weakly developed, hidden by clypeus. Labrum membranous in most, hidden. Antenna 10-segmented, club with 3 segments (these sometimes elongated); antennal insertion visible from above on side of clypeus. Eye canthus long, narrow. Elytron with distinct post-humeral emargination (Gymnetini, Cetoniini, Cremastocheilini) that reveals the mesepimeron at the base of elytron or lacking post-humeral emargination (Trichiini and Valgini). Pygidium exposed. Propygidium rigidly connected to fifth visible sternite. Procoxae protruding conically downward. Posterior coxae contiguous or nearly so in Trichiini. Tarsal claws simple and subequal in size.

Classification Status

The subfamily Cetoniinae was redefined by Krikken (1984) to include twelve tribes (citing Trichiini and Valgini as tribes). Previously, Schenkling (1921) had recognized seven tribes in the Coleopterorum Catalogus (not including the Trichiini and Valgini). Of the twelve tribes recognized by Krikken, five occur in North America. The tribes not occurring in North America are: Xiphoscelidini (Africa and Madagascar), Stenotarsiini (Madagascar), Schizorhinini (Australia, Oriental), Goliathini (Africa, Oriental, Madagascar, two genera and three species in southern Mexico), Diplognathini (Africa, Oriental), Phaedimini (Oriental), and Taenioderini (Oriental, Australia, Palearctic).

In the United States, Canada, and northern Mexico, there are 18 genera and about 105 species. Keys to adults: Casey 1915; Goodrich 1966; Howden 1968b, 1971; Krikken 1976, 1984 (to subtribes); Hardy 1988; Harpootlian 2001. North American catalog: Smith 2001. Regional works: Blatchley 1910; Lago et al. 1979; Ratcliffe 1991; Mor—n et al. 1997; Harpootlian 2001. World Catalog: Schenkling 1921; Krikken 1984 (genera); Krajc’k 1998, 1999. Larvae: Ritcher 1966.

New World Tribes


Characteristics. Pronotum lacking basomedian lobe, scutellum visible. Mesepimeron distinct. Posthumeral emargination slight. Elytra glabrous or velutinous. Middle coxae usually widely separated by mesometasternal process. Head of males with strong clypeal projections.

The Goliathini is a large tribe with about 80 genera (Krikken 1984) that are found mostly in the African and Oriental regions. Two genera (Ischnoscelis Burmeister and Neoscelis Schoch) occur in the New World (Mexico). Keys: Morón and Ratcliffe 1989.

Characteristics. Pronotum with basomedian lobe strongly expanded, apex rounded, covering most of scutellum. Mesepimeron distinct. Posthumeral emargination of elytra distinct. Surface usually velutinous. Mesometasternal protrusion developed.

This tribe consists of approximately 29 genera, and 25 of these are restricted to the New World. Most of the species in the tribe are Neotropical in distribution.

Characteristics. Pronotum lacking basomedian lobe, scutellum visible. Mesepimeron distinct. Posthumeral emargination of elytra distinct. Elytra glabrous, velutinous, or with cretaceous patches. Mesometasternal protrusion developed.

The Cetoniini is a large tribe and consists of about 107 genera. These beetles are widely distributed around the world although not as commonly in the Neotropics, Madagascar, or Australasia. There are five genera in the New World (Krikken 1984).

Characteristics. Labium one half to three fourths as wide as head. Maxillary galea and lacinia usually dentate. Antenna with scape conspicuously enlarged into flattened, triangular shape. Middle coxae never separated by a broad protrusion. Body form usually subquadrate, flattened dorsally. Color black or brown.

The tribe Cremastocheilini contains about 51 genera. About 60% of the genera are found in Africa while none occur in Madagascar or Australia. In the New World there are nine genera.

Characteristics. Procoxae projecting conically. Pronotum evenly convex or with weakly impressed midline or pre-discal impression. Mandibles either weakly or strongly sclerotized. Galea of maxilla usually penicillate. Protibia with 1-3 teeth. Dorsum uniformly dark brown or black or bicolored or with cretaceous spots or bands or metallic.

Until relatively recently, the trichiines have been considered as a subfamily (frequently as a family in Europe). The tribe Trichiini consists of 43 genera that are found nearly worldwide except Australia and Madagascar. Thirteen genera are found in the New World with five genera occurring in North America. Key: Howden 1968b; Mor—n and Krikken 1990.

. Antennal insertion visible from above. Pronotum narrower than elytra and usually with 2 distinct, parallel, longitudinal ridges. Posthumeral elytral emargination absent. Mesepimeron not visible in dorsal view. Propygidium and pygidium exposed. Metacoxae widely separated. Protibia with 5 teeth. Body size small, generally less than 10 mm.

The tribe Valgini consists of 33 genera found nearly worldwide. One genus, Valgus, is found in the Nearctic region. Key: Krikken 1978. Overview: Arrow 1944.

References cited

KRIKKEN, J. 1984. A new key to the suprageneric taxa in the beetle family Cetoniidae, with annotated lists of the known genera. Zoologische Verhandelingen No. 210: 1-75.

MORON, M. A. and B. C. RATCLIFFE. 1989. A synopsis of the American Goliathini with description of a new Neoscelis from Mexico (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniiinae). Coleopterists Bulletin 43: 339-348.

RITCHER, P. O. 1966. White Grubs and Their Allies. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 219 pp.

SCHENKLING, S. 1921. Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae. Coleopterorum Catalogus 72: 1-431.