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Labarrus Mulsant and Rey 1870
Labarrus Mulsant and Rey 1870: 516.

Labarrus lividus (Olivier)
Photo by P. Skelley.
Family........... Subfamily......


Aphodiinae Overview

Aphodiinae Key

Aphodiini Key

Type species. Scarabaeus lividus Olivier 1789: 86, by monotypy.
                  = Aphodius (Pseudocalamosternus) Balthasar 1936: 1. Type
                  species: Aphodius rigidus Balthasar 1936, by monotypy.


Diagnosis. Body length 3.5-5.8 mm, elongate, robust, black with variable yellowish-brown markings, elytra mostly yellowish-brown often with dark, central maculation. Head with tubercles. Pronotum robust, lacking marginal line at base. Scutellum pentagonal, sides convergent toward base. Elytral humerus lacking tooth, intervals moderately convex. Protibial dorsal surface impunctate. Metatibial apical spinules short, equal in length.


Distribution. Worldwide.


Composition. Worldwide, Labarrus contains approximately 16 species, 3 of which occur in the New World.

Labarrus lividus
(Olivier 1789: 86) [Scarabaeus], nearly cosmopolitan (?), US and Panama.
                  = Aphodius anachoreta Fabricius 1801: 74.
                  = Scarabaeus bilituratus Marsham 1802: 15.
                  = Aphodius cincticulus Hope 1846: 147.
                  = Aphodius discus Wiedemann 1823: 28.
                  = Aphodius fimetifex Gistel 1857: 590.
                  = Aphodius hircinus Gistel 1857: 584.
                  = Aphodius innumerabilis Schmidt 1911: 31.
                  = Aphodius limbatus Wiedemann 1821: 129.
                  = Scarabaeus limicola Panzer 1798: 6.
                  = Aphodius luridus Arrow 1903: 511 (lapsus calami).
                  = Aphodius maculicollis Montrouzier 1860: 268.
                  = Aphodius matusitai Nakane 1961: 151.
                  = Aphodius obsoletus Fabricius 1801: 70.
                  = Aphodius scutellaris Roth 1851: 132.
                  = Aphodius sequens Walker 1858: 207.
                  = Aphodius spilopterus Germar 1848: 189.
                  = Scarabaeus suturalis Fabricius 1792: 28.
                  = Scarabaeus vespertinus Panzer 1799: no. 67: 3.
Labarrus parnaguensis (Petrovitz 1961: 108) [Aphodius], Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
Labarrus pseudolividus (Balthasar 1941: 148) [Aphodius], N. to S.America, Africa, Australia?


Life History. Adults appear to be surface generalists, frequently attracted to lights. Larvae may be detritivores.


Larvae. The larvae of L. lividus [L. pseudolividus?] is described in Ritcher (1966).


Status of Classification. Labarrus lividus has been reported as occurring nearly worldwide. Morphological evidence (external and genitalic) indicates there are multiple species involved. Some recent papers present these species as synonyms of L. lividus (sensu lato), considering it to be polymorphic. Until there is evidence to suggest otherwise, these genitalic types should be considered as valid species. The three species listed to occur in the New World are difficult to distinguish, requiring study of male genitalia for confirmation. Recent work indicates the vast majority of Labarrus specimens from the New World are actually L. pseudolividus. There are a few validated records of L. lividus, and several of L. parnaguensis (M. Dellacasa et al. 2002, Skelley et al. 2007). Thus, older literature records for L. lividus are potentially inaccurate.


Dellacasa, M., R.D.Gordon, and G. Dellacasa. 2002. Aphodiinae described or recorded by Bates in Biologia Centrali-Americana (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea: Aphodiidae). Acta Zoologica Mexicana 86: 155-223. [key to Labarrus species in New World]
Gordon, R. D., and P. E. Skelley. 2007. A monograph of the Aphodiini inhabiting the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 79: 580 pp.
Ritcher, P.O. 1966. White grubs and their allies: A study of North American scarabaeoid larvae. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon. Studies in Entomology 4: 219 pp.
Skelley, P. E., M. Dellacasa, G. Dellacasa, and R. D. Gordon. 2007. Checklist of the Aphodiini of Mexico, Central and South America (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae). Insecta Mundi 0014: 1-14.    

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Author: Paul Skelley

Generated on: 01/MAY/08.....Last modified: 01/MAY/08
University of Nebraska State Museum - Division of Entomology